A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device that replaces the function of the damaged inner ear. Unlike hearing aids, which make sounds louder, cochlear implants do the work of damaged parts of the inner ear (cochlea) to send sound signals to the brain.
Most important thing is early diagnosis. Management of deaf and mute child should be started as early as possible. Success of cochlear implant is more if it is done by the age of 3years. Success rate decreases with advancement of age of child.
How we hear?
The eardrum vibrations caused by sound waves move the chain of tiny bones (the ossicles – malleus, incus and stapes) in the middle ear transferring the sound vibrations into the cochlea of the inner ear. This is where the streams of nerve impulses are converted into meaningful sound.
Parts of ear:
Outer Ear :
Middle Ear: Converts sound waves in to vibrations.
Inner Ear (Cochlea): converts vibrations into electrical impulse. Theses electrical impulse travel to brain via nerve of hearing (Cochlear nerve)
What is cause of Hearing Loss in children?
As the cases of children being unable to hear pile up in Gwalior, it is necessary to know what causes the loss of hearing at such an early age. In children hearing loss can be congenital (from birth) or acquired (after birth). Acquired can be due to various infections or trauma, etc.
Hearing loss can also be classified as per language development as follows
Pre-lingual –hearing loss developed before child could start speaking, it can be either congenital (from birth) or acquired (after birth).
Post-lingual – hearing loss developed after child started speaking. It means it is acquired.
Cause of hearing loss is any defect in the transmission of sound through the ear. It can be
Conductive – Caused by defect in middle or external part of ear. It can usually be treated by some medications. Less frequently a surgery is required to correct this type of hearing loss
Sensory-neural – Caused by defect in nerve of hearing or cochlea. Mild to moderate hearing loss can be treated by hearing aid whereas severe to profound hearing loss requires Cochlear Implant surgery
Burden of Hearing loss?
In US Significant bilateral hearing loss is present in ~1 to 3 per 1000 newborn infants in the well-baby nursery population, and in ~2 to 4 per 100 infants in the intensive care unit population.
In India, 63 million people (6.3%) suffer from significant auditory loss. Four in every 1000 children suffer from severe to profound hearing loss. The estimated prevalence of childhood onset deafness to be 2%
How to assess Hearing loss in a new born?
Detection of infant hearing loss requires universal screening of all infants. Screening by high-risk registry alone (eg, family history of deafness) can only identify ~50% of newborns with significant congenital hearing loss. Reliance on physician observation and/or parental recognition has not been successful in the past in detecting significant hearing loss especially in the first year of life.
Tests for screening include otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem response (ABR / BERA). Both test are noninvasive, quick, and easy to perform, although each assesses hearing differently. Aim is to initiate necessary intervention by 6 months of age.
Hysterectomy can be carried out vaginally, abdominally, laparoscopically or in a combination of these. Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy (TLH) is an advanced surgical technique which involves removing the uterus and cervix using keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery. Ovaries and fallopian tubes may or may not be removed depending on the reason for surgery. This procedure may be combined with other procedures, such as repair of a prolapse, etc.
TLH surgery could be the best option for women dealing with heavy or painful periods, pelvic pain, endometriosis, fibroids, prolapse, endometrial or cervical problems.
TLH is normally carried out under a general anaesthesia. After you have been given a general anaesthetic and you are asleep, a catheter (a tube for urine drainage) is inserted into your bladder. A small cut about 1 cm is made near your navel (belly button). The abdomen is filled with gas and an optical instrument, called a laparoscope, is inserted to allow the internal organs to be viewed before three further small cuts, about 0.5 cm each, are made on your abdomen. These cuts are for other instruments to be used during the surgery. In most cases the uterus and cervix are removed through the vagina. If the uterus is too large to remove vaginally, or the vagina is too narrow, then uterus is cut in pieces and removed vaginally.
The procedure takes about 1 to 2 hours, but you can expect to be in theatre and recovery for about 3 hours.
TLH reduces your recovery period (including hospital stay), reduces the pain and discomfort after your surgery.
Some benefits of TLH are:-
Less pain after surgery than having ‘open’ (traditional) surgery.
Fewer wound complications.
Less disruption to bowel and bladder function.
Lower risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT).
Shorter recovery period (including hospital stay) compared to other forms of hysterectomy surgery.
Lesser discomfort after your surgery compared to other forms of hysterectomy surgery.
The procedure of TLH is a complex series of steps taken in the right direction to derive fruitful results. It can only be carried out by expert gynaecologists, practicing their craft for a long period of time. Dr. Veena Agrawal and Dr. Sonali Agrawal are expert gynaecologists who trained in carrying out TLH and can help the patients of Gwalior and nearby regions.
Sleep Apnea in medical terms is the lack of breathing in a person during the routine sleep cycle. This disorder can turn out to be a serious one if not treated properly and in-time. While it is a curable disease, Sleep Apnea can occur in any person independent of the age and environmental conditions. The disorder causes the infected person to stop breathing several times during sleep. This means many parts of the body get devoid of the precious Oxygen gas which covers the length and holds up our body intact. While it may not look like a serious disorder at first, but eventually if went untreated it has the potential to deal massive damage to the persons health.
Types Sleep Apnea can be categorized in two different types:
OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA: This type of sleep apnea is caused by a blockage in nasal system, usually when the soft tissue in the back of the throat collapses during sleep cycle.
CENTRAL SLEEP APNEA: This disorder is born out of the central nervous system of a body. When a person’s brain is unable to send proper signals to the muscles which control breathing.
Factors which increase the risk of developing this disorder are:
Neck Circumference (>17 inches)
Being over 40
Alcohol use and abuse
Sleep Apnea can affect a healthy person in the following ways:
Sore throats and mouth wounds are normal conditions that a great many people understand. Saltwater swishes can be a modest, safe, and successful approach to ease torment and soothe indications from conditions that influence the mouth and throat.
While drug stores and different stores sell cured mouthwashes and comparable items, a few people lean toward saltwater swishes and other home cures.
In this article, we examine what saltwater swishes are and what conditions they can help treat and forestall. We likewise spread how to make and utilize a saltwater rinse, just as dangers and contemplations.
Saltwater Rinse is a Blend of Salt, Water, and Preparing POP
A saltwater rinse is a home solution for sore throats and different reasons for mouth torment. Saltwater arrangements are a straightforward blend of water and table salt and can be a modest, safe, and viable option to sedated mouthwashes.
Saltwater arrangements are not very much considered. A little report from 2010 of 45 youngsters explored the viability of a saline salt water swish and a mouthwash containing alum.
The scientists revealed that youngsters who utilized one of the saltwater swish twice day by day for 21 days had fundamentally decreased degrees of mouth microscopic organisms, contrasted and kids who utilized a fake treatment.
Be that as it may, the saltwater rinse was not as successful at lessening microorganisms as the alum mouthwash. Alum, which is potassium aluminium sulphate, is a functioning fixing in some cured mouthwashes.
Saltwater rinses can be successful for treating gentle torment, inconvenience, and tickles in the mouth and throat. We examine a portion of the conditions that saltwater swishes can help treat and forestall beneath.
Saltwater swishes can be a viable method to ease inconvenience from sore throats.
Both the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement and the American Cancer Society (ACS) prescribe rinsing with salt water to mitigate sore throats. As per the ACS, ordinary utilization of saltwater rinses can help keep the mouth clean and forestall diseases, especially in individuals going through chemotherapy or radiation treatment.
Blister are agonizing ulcers that can create in the mouth. Swishing with salt water may assist ease with tormenting and advance mending of the injuries.
A few sensitivities, for example, roughage fever, can make an individual’s nasal sections and throat swell, which can be awkward. Despite the fact that rinsing with salt water won’t forestall the sensitivity, it might help lighten a portion of the throat inconveniences.
Gargling with salt water may help diminish the indications of the basic virus. Upper respiratory diseases are commonplace and incorporate regular colds, this season’s virus, mononucleosis, and sinus contaminations. Some exploration recommends that swishing with salt water can ease indications and even assistance forestall upper respiratory contaminations.
For instance, an investigation from 2013 including 338 members found that the individuals who rinsed with saltwater were less inclined to have upper respiratory contaminations.
Routinely swishing with salt water can help with eliminating microorganisms from the gums, which helps in cleaning and forestalling the development of plaque and tartar. A development of microorganisms in the mouth can prompt gum illness and tooth rot.
The American Dental Association (ADA) suggest that individuals tenderly wash the mouth with a warm saltwater arrangement in the wake of having a dental method. Doing this can help keep the extraction site clean and forestall disease.
Does Saltwater Eliminate Microscopic Organisms?
Saltwater may slaughter a few yet doesn’t murder all, mouth and throat microscopic organisms. Notwithstanding, arrangements of salt can help carry microscopic organisms to the outside of the gums, teeth, and throat. When the microscopic organisms is brought to the surface, some of it washes away when an individual lets the saltwater out.
Saltwater washes are simple and modest to make. The ADA suggests including half of a teaspoon (tsp) of salt to 8 ounces of warm water, at that point blending until they are consolidated.
An elective formula includes adding heating soft drink to the saltwater arrangement. For instance, the ACS prescribes consolidating the accompanying to make a saltwater swish:
1 qtr. water
1 tsp salt
1 tsp preparing pop
Instructions to Rinse Viably
Gargling for as far as might be feasible can help guarantee that the mouthwash is successful.
To utilize the saltwater wash:
Take as a significant part of the arrangement into the mouth as is agreeable.
Gargle the saltwater around the rear of the throat.
Rinse around the mouth, teeth, and gums.
Spit out the arrangement.
An individual should attempt to wash the saltwater answer for to the extent that this would be possible. Despite the fact that the saltwater arrangement is commonly sheltered to swallow, it is ideal to let it out.
For most extreme adequacy, an individual should rinse with salt water a few times per day.
Individuals recouping from dental methodology can utilize a saltwater answer for flush their mouth. Nonetheless, for the initial hardly any days, they should wash delicately to keep scabs from opening up, and follow the headings from their dental expert.
Dangers and Contemplations
Swishing with salt water is viewed as safe for the two youngsters and grown-ups. Notwithstanding, individuals who experience difficulty washing ought not to utilize a saltwater swish.
Some little youngsters may likewise not have the option to swish adequately. A paediatrician might have the option to give exhortation on when a youngster is prepared to wash.
Saltwater washes are protected to utilize a few times each day whenever wanted, and for most, there are no symptoms. Individuals with hypertension or those with other ailments who need to restrict their sodium admission ought to talk with a specialist or dental specialist before washing with saltwater.
Individuals who don’t care for the flavour of saltwater arrangements can take a stab at adding nectar or garlic to help improve the flavour.
Washing with salt water can help keep an individual’s mouth clean and may lighten agony and inconvenience from sore throats, mouth wounds, and dental methods. Saltwater rinses are snappy and simple to make and are a modest and common option to sedated mouthwashes.
An individual can securely swish with salt water a few times each day. There are normally no reactions. Be that as it may, individuals with hypertension or the individuals who need to restrict their sodium admission ought to talk with a specialist before washing with saltwater.
Sore throats and mouth bruises are normal conditions that a great many people understanding. Saltwater swishes can be a modest, safe, and powerful approach to ease torment and assuage manifestations from conditions that influence the mouth and throat.
While drug stores and different stores sell sedated mouthwashes and comparable items, a few people incline toward saltwater rinses and other home cures.
Inconvenience hearing? Or then again did you push that q-tip excessively profound this time? An obstructed ear from ear wax develop is, best case scenario, irritating and at the very least an introduction to hearing misfortune. So how might you best deal with ear wax troubles?
Yet, in case you’re among those whose ear wax manufacturing plants are staying at work past 40 hours, Dr Rahul Agrawal shares do’s and don’ts for eliminating wax from your ear.
In the event that your ears appear to be waxier than most, cheer up: Ear wax, otherwise called cerumen, isn’t just typical, it’s important.”It additionally shields ears from things that could hurt the eardrum, for example, residue, hair or little bugs.” (How’s that for a visual?)
However, as most things throughout everyday life, it’s about parity — an excessive amount of wax can hinder your ears and cause impermanent hearing misfortune or contaminations. “Few individuals will require cleaning in the event that they produce a lot of wax that jams up the ear, particularly on the off chance that they have a littler than-normal ear channel”
If you have a small amount of wax, over-the-counter ear cleaners work well. Look for drops that contain hydrogen or other kinds of peroxide. The peroxide does a good job of breaking up ear wax.
Here’s how to use them:
Let it sit
Grab a tissue
In the event that that technique doesn’t work, the ears may require flushing with a bulb needle. Yet, there are a couple of admonitions:
Be delicate: Flush your ear tenderly to abstain from hurting your eardrum.
Watch the temperature: The water ought not to be excessively cold or excessively warm. On the off chance that it is, the temperature distinction could make you lightheaded.
Avoid if essential: Don’t utilize the flushing technique in the event that you have a gap in your eardrum or on the off chance that you’ve ever had eardrum medical procedure. Flushing may harm your eardrum fix.
In the event that you are not open to flushing your own ears, you should check with your essential consideration supplier’s office to check whether there is an attendant who might do it for you.
Ear cleaning drops may not work on the off chance that you have an excessive amount of ear wax or a condition called affected cerumen (when there’s a firm wax plug impeding your ear trench.
If you are not comfortable flushing your own ears, you might want to check with your primary care provider’s office to see if there is a nurse who would do it for you.
Ear cleaning drops may not work if you have too much ear wax or a condition called impacted cerumen (when there’s a firm wax plug blocking your ear canal.
Mineral or olive oil
Episodically, individuals who put olive oil in their ear before getting a cleaning appear to get wax out more without any problem.
Two ear wax expulsion solutions to avoid:
Q-tips (Cotton Swabs): A producer’s admonition on the bundle says everything: Do not embed swab into ear trench. “A q-tip acts like a ramrod in an old-style gun. The tip pushes the ear wax in more profound, so the more you use it, the more ear wax you push in. Additionally, you may break your eardrum on the off chance that you drive excessively far. Or on the other hand in the event that you scratch your ear waterway, it can get contaminated on the grounds that now soil and microscopic organisms can infiltrate under your skin.”
When to See a Doctor About a Clogged Ear ?
While ear wax is generally more annoying than dangerous, sometimes you need a doctor to clear it. If home remedies don’t work, your ear hurts or you have trouble hearing, it’s smart to seek medical evaluation.
If the situation is minor, you may be able to get your ears unblocked right then and there. If not, ENT doctors can use operating microscopes to magnify inside the ear canal, loosen the wax and vacuum it out.
In vitro treatment, or IVF, is the most widely recognized and successful kind conception method to help unfertile couples to realize their dream of having a baby. It includes preparing an egg outside the body, in a research centre, and afterward embedding it inside a women’s body.
The process includes preparing an egg outside the body, and embedding it to proceed with the pregnancy.
One percent of children conceived in the United States are conceived through IVF.
There is a higher possibility of multiple birth with IVF.
IVF has been utilized since the last part of the 1970s. On 25 July 1978, the primary “unnaturally conceived child,” Louise Brown, was conceived.
Robert Edwards and Patrick Steptoe, who worked together on the methodology, are viewed as the pioneers of IVF.
Procedures may contrast contingent upon the facility, yet IVF as a rule includes the accompanying advances:
Altering the Common Menstrual Cycle
The lady gets a medication, ordinarily as a day by day infusion for around fourteen days, to smother their characteristic menstrual cycle.
Fruitfulness drugs containing the ripeness hormone follicle animating hormone (FSH) are given to the lady. FSH makes the ovaries produce more eggs than expected. Vaginal ultrasound sweeps can screen the procedure in the ovaries.
Recovering the Eggs
The eggs are gathered through a minor surgery known as “follicular desire.” A dainty needle is embedded through the vagina and into an ovary. The needle is which is associated with a pull gadget. This sucks the eggs out. This procedure is rehashed for every ovary.
Insemination and Fertilization
The eggs that have been gathered are set along with male sperm and kept in an earth controlled chamber. Following a couple of hours, the sperm ought to enter the egg.
Solidified sperm, recovered through testicular biopsy, might be utilized. This is accepted to be as powerful as new sperm in accomplishing an effective pregnancy.
The prepared egg separates and turns into an incipient organism.
A couple of the best undeveloped organisms are chosen to move.
The lady is then given progesterone or human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to help the coating of the belly get the undeveloped organism.
Undeveloped Organism Moves
Now and then, more than one incipient organism is put in the belly. It is significant that the specialist and the couple wishing to have a youngster talk about what number of incipient organisms ought to be moved. Typically, a specialist will possibly move more than one undeveloped organism if no perfect incipient organisms are accessible.
AT AHRI, IVF can also be used as a treatment option enabling any embryos that are created, to be tested for some abnormalities before they are transferred into the uterus (womb)